Agroforestry - Upper Tana, Kenya

The Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund (UTNWF) project is the first water fund in Africa, which aims to use green infrastructure such as forests and wetlands to address the root cause of diminishing water quantity and quality in the region. The project is using a combination of agroforestry techniques (including fruit orchards, alley cropping and boundary planting) to restore forest habitat and prevent further agricultural expansion that damages water supplies. They have worked with over 165,000 local farmers to plant over 3 million trees to stabilise soils, sequester carbon, and improve the income security of local farmers.


$ 24 /tonne

CO2 Tonnes
A farmer in Kenya
A view of an agroforestry field in Kenya
A view of an agroforestation field in Kenya

Project information

UTNWF project

The UTNWF project is located in the Upper Tana watershed of the Tana River, Kenya’s longest river at around 1000km, covering an area of over 10,000 square kilometres. Agricultural expansion in the Upper Tana watershed has led to erosion and increased sedimentation in waterways, reducing the quantity and quality of water available to downstream users. As Africa’s first water fund, the project is based on the principle that it is more economical and efficient to prevent water problems with green infrastructure such as forests and wetlands that address the root cause of the issue rather than relying on grey infrastructure such as water treatment plants that only address the symptoms of the issue.

By working in partnership with local farmers to create Farm-Specific Action Plans (FSAPs), the project introduces an array of agroforestry techniques. These include fruit orchards, alley cropping, enrichment fallows, dispersed tree interplanting, and boundary planting. To date, the initiative has resulted in the planting of more than 3 million trees across over 150,000 hectares. This not only stabilises the soil and enhances farmer earnings but also offers essential habitats for various species and aids in water quality improvement.

A view of an agroforestation field in Kenya


Afforestation/reforestation; improved land management



Sustainable Goals

  • no poverty
  • zero hunger
  • good health
  • quality education
  • gender equality
  • clean water
  • clean energy
  • economic growth
  • infrastructure
  • reduced inequality
  • sustainable cities
  • responsible consumption
  • climate action
  • life below water
  • life on land
  • peace justice
  • partnerships

Project performance

Upper Tana watershed

The Upper Tana watershed supplies 95% of the water for Nairobi, the capital of Kenya. The watershed provides water for 9 million people and the Masinga hydropower system that generates 40% of Kenya’s electricity.

Forests and wetlands are crucial for maintaining water quality and quantity by filtering runoff water and sediment. Since the 1970s, forests and wetlands in the region have been cleared for agricultural production. Around 60% of the land in the watershed is now used for agriculture. On top of this, soil erosion has contributed to the loss of soil fertility and thus declines in crop yields and farmer incomes.

The expansion of agriculture has increased sedimentation levels, reducing the capacity of reservoirs. At the same time, demand for irrigation water in the area has increased, placing even more strain on the region’s water supplies.

The project seeks to maintain a vibrant and secure water supply for both Nairobi's capital and the surrounding area. Their work aims to address the root causes of water issues in the region, namely the agricultural expansion, by promoting agroforestry systems that reduce the damage done by agriculture while improving livelihoods and biodiversity outcomes.

Upper Tana Project score


Hectares of agroforestry systems implemented



Trees planted



Farmers employed to do soil and water conservation on farmland

Project impact

Local impact

Upper Tana.gif

The image provides a visual representation of the distribution and growth of farmer participation in the scheme over time and space. It illustrates nearly 18,000 farmers spread across 47 wards, highlighting the geographical spread of the scheme across the Tana River watershed.

Project area: through time

The farming scheme in the Tana River watershed has seen significant progress. Since 2017, there has been a notable increase in the area dedicated to agroforestry, now covering 153,078 hectares, which has brought considerable benefits to both the environment and the local communities. As of the latest data, it has involved 165,000 farmers across the watershed. The UTNWF has formulated a 5-year strategic plan for 2022-2026, aiming to expand the program further. This plan includes enrolling an additional 20,000 farmers in addition to continuing support for those already participating. A key component of this expansion is the planting of three million new tree seedlings within the watershed. The plan specifically targets farmers who are in the project area but have not previously been involved in the scheme.

A view of an agroforestry field in Kenya

Great for earth

The project protects and expands crucial habitat for endemic plant species such as the Meru Oak and African cherry trees. So far, over 3 million agroforestry trees have been planted, covering an area of over 150,000 hectares.

In addition, the project is improving ecosystem connectivity by restoring vegetation along road shoulders and terraces, which will further reduce runoff and hold moisture on farms to increase crop yields. This has provided crucial habitat and ecosystem connectivity for iconic fauna such as African elephants, cape buffaloes, leopards, colobus monkeys and mountain bongo antelopes.

Lastly, the project activities are reducing runoff and sedimentation in rivers, streams and lakes, which improves water quality and is expected to benefit over 1900 freshwater fauna species.

A farmer in Kenya

Positive for people

The project was developed and is run by local community members and farmers. Now, over 165,000 smallholder farmers are involved. Before project activities began, they conducted a detailed socioeconomic baseline assessment to fully understand the conditions in the area and to be able to monitor the progress over time. As the organisation is volunteer-led, all revenue from carbon credits is channeled into project activities. The project aims to raise productivity and incomes by 30% by 2025 compared to the initial 2017 baseline.

The project has already undertaken significant investments, including in drip irrigation and rainwater harvesting pans, to enhance both the quantity and quality of potable water. To date, over 15,000 rainwater harvesting kits have been set up.

The project is working to enhance results for essential ecosystem services. This includes a reduction in the risk of flooding and erosion, the improvement of food and nutrition security through the development of fruit orchards, and predictions of an 11% increase in water availability for Nairobi. Additionally, it is expected to decrease sediment levels in nearby rivers by 16%.

Lastly, the project is taking measures to promote gender equality. By investing in biogas systems, they are working to decrease unpaid labor time for women. A deliberate effort is being made to include more women in the program. Initially, the project was supported by 39% female-led households, a figure that stands in contrast to the regional average of 24%.

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A view of agroforestry fields in Kenya
A view of an agroforestry field in Kenya
A farmer in Kenya